December 18, 2012

Alternative news update

Religion & its alternatives 


Civil liberties & justice

Fewest states in 20 years executed inmates in 2012

Newtown murders

What's an assault weapon?
Every reporter, politician and activist dealing with the gun issue should watch this

Murders per capita by state
You have one tenth the chance of being killed in New Hampshire as you do in Louisiana


From Capitol Hill to K Street


EPA issues new rules for find particle pollution


Anonymous said...

Very misleading video about what constitutes an assault rifle.
Just because they may look similar doesn't mean that they are.
Totally absent seems to be an honest examination of the differences as they apply to the actual ballistics.
Therein rests the crux of the issue.
What happens upon impact...
The .223 ammunition used at Sandy Hook was designed to impart 100% of its energy upon impact. Often this means the round nearly disintegrates as it creates a massive exploding wound---think of the images from the Zapruder film as half of Kennedy's skull disappears. Even without the extreme physical damage, the .223 round can be as lethal through the generated forces associated with hydro-static shock. The bullet enters the body with such extreme velocity, energy dissipated through bodily fluids builds up extreme internal pressure, causing destruction of tissue and cells. Hydro-static pressures delivered to the brain from a body wound can be sufficient to cause death.

Anonymous said...



The term ballistics refers to the science of the travel of a projectile in flight. The flight path of a bullet includes: travel down the barrel, path through the air, and path through a target. The wounding potential of projectiles is a complex matter. (Fackler, 1996)
Internal, or initial ballistics (within the gun)

Bullets fired from a rifle will have more energy than similar bullets fired from a handgun. More powder can also be used in rifle cartridges because the bullet chambers can be designed to withstand greater pressures (50,000 to 70,000 for rifles psi vs. 30,000 to 40,000 psi for handgun chamber). Higher pressures require a bigger gun with more recoil that is slower to load and generates more heat that produces more wear on the metal. It is difficult in practice to measure the forces within a gun barrel, but the one easily measured parameter is the velocity with which the bullet exits the barrel (muzzle velocity) and this measurement will be used in examples below. (Bruner et al, 2011)

Bullets produce tissue damage in three ways (Adams, 1982):

Laceration and crushing - Tissue damage through laceration and crushing occurs along the path or "track" through the body that a projectile, or its fragments, may produce.

Cavitation - A "permanent" cavity is caused by the path (track) of the bullet itself with crushing of tissue, whereas a "temporary" cavity is formed by radial stretching around the bullet track from continued acceleration of the medium (air or tissue) in the wake of the bullet, causing the wound cavity to be stretched outward. For projectiles traveling at low velocity the permanent and temporary cavities are nearly the same, but at high velocity and with bullet yaw the temporary cavity becomes larger (Maiden, 2009).

Shock waves - Shock waves compress the medium and travel ahead of the bullet, as well as to the sides, but these waves last only a few microseconds and do not cause profound destruction at low velocity. At high velocity, generated shock waves can reach up to 200 atmospheres of pressure. (DiMaio and Zumwalt, 1977) However, bone fracture from cavitation is an extremely rare event. (Fackler, 1996) The ballistic pressure wave from distant bullet impact can induce a concussive-like effect in humans, causing acute neurological symptoms. (Courtney and Courtney, 2007)

The mathematics of wound ballistics, in reference to yaw of unstable projectiles, has been described. The model works well for non-deformable bullets. (Peters et al, 1996)(Peters and Sebourn, 1996)

Experimental methods to demonstrate tissue damage have utilized materials with characteristics similar to human soft tissues and skin. Pigskin has been employed to provide an external layer to blocks of compounds such as ordnance gelatin or ballistic soap. Firing of bullets into these materials at various ranges is followed by direct visual inspection (cutting the block) or radiographic analysis (CT imaging) to determine the sizes and appearances of the cavity produced (Rutty, et al, 2007).

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